GOD GIVES HOPE, EVEN IN THE DARKEST HOURS.

MAKE THIS YOUR NEW HOME

MAKE THIS YOUR NEW HOME

FIND YOUR PATH TO YOUR NEW HOME           Photo credit: Bigstock photo

In the Beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.  Clearly, there are extremely difficult, even horrible, times ahead for all peoples. ALMOST EVERYONE WILL TRANSITION FROM THIS EARTH – THE PROBLEM IS, WHERE WILL THE PERSON GO? However, God, the Word, always provides HOPE, and will lead the way to your new home(for those willing to follow).  End Of Time disasters and dangers will be listed and interpreted.

THE ULTIMATE HOPE WILL BE: YOUR NEW HOME IN HEAVEN.

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WORLD DAMAGING DISASTERS

Earthquakes Will Kill Many People

Earthquakes Will Kill Many People

Earthquakes, Massive (above 10.0 magnitude will occur)

Izmit, Turkey earthquake, August 1999 Photo Credit: USGS

Izmit, Turkey earthquake, August 1999 Photo Credit: USGS

VOLCANOES PRODUCE TONS OF ASH AND SULFUR

REDOUBT VOLCANO: VOLCANOES PRODUCE TONS OF ASH AND SULFUR Credit: R. Clucas, USGS

Volcanoes, huge (above VEI 10) (pictured above is a smaller volcano)

Sulfur dioxide releases from volcanoes and forms sulfuric acid

Islands and Mountains disappear: caused by the massive earthquakes

Tsunamis caused by Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Plagues/Diseases

Drought/Famine

Asteroids/Meteorites

Meteorite Hail (about 75 pounds, or 34 kilograms, which are white-hot rocks)

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END OF TIME: REVIEW OF PUBLISHED PROPHECIES

Photo of Universe Credit: NASA

Photo of Universe Credit: NASA

LIST OF PROPHECIES PUBLISHED BEFORE MAY 10, 2013 AND SUMMARY OF FINDINGS ON EACH PROPHECY:

1. God Gives Hope, Even In The Darkest Hours - The world, as we know it, began with God. It is God’s plan to end this civilization; however, God always provides hope for individuals. HOPE HAS BEEN THE GUIDING LIGHT as we worked through several prophetic hazards.

THE END OF TIME JUDGING IS COMING AND IT WILL AFFECT EVERY INDIVIDUAL ON THIS EARTH.

The leading goal of this website has been to release information to all peoples of the Earth, to allow peoples to make informed decisions. We hope those receiving this End Of Time Prophetic information will be willing to discuss God’s Programs with their friends and neighbors, if the opportunity arises.

What is missing is an Earthly schedule. We can no longer rely that the End Of Time catastrophic events will be decades into the future; they could begin as early as tomorrow!

2. World Damaging Disasters provides a list of the predicted major disasters which have been identified to date. This review will provide a summary of these disasters from information published in this website and the website amplifiedendoftimewarnings.com. Note that these disasters will not have their maximum destruction everywhere on Earth; some areas will receive major damage and some areas will receive only minor damage from a specific disaster. (Another way to say this is that damage results will be spotty; catastrophic disaster damage will not be uniform through out the world.)

We want to be very clear: The Earth as a planet will not be destroyed at the End Of Time. Also, the soul of the individual will not be destroyed at the End Of Time.

3. Volcanoes - Volcanoes have created and destroyed land and reshaped the Earth for eons. Clearly, volcanoes are big, mean, and brutal and do not discriminate between peoples. Volcanoes force out hot dangerous gases, ash, lava, and rock that are powerfully destructive.

Although people in the immediate vicinity have died from volcanic blasts, the most common cause of death is suffocation.

Other health concerns are drinking water contamination, infectious diseases, respiratory illness, burns, injuries, and vehicle accidents.

Effects of overexposure: Sulfur dioxide gas is intensely irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract causing burning of the eyes and tearing, coughing, and chest tightness. It may cause severe breathing difficulties; severe exposure to sulfur dioxide may cause a person to stop breathing!

Although it may be of limited value, we believe all persons must have a special room (sealed from air leaks) or a gas mask!

For persons living in a low-lying area close by a volcano, we also recommend a carbon dioxide meter. Carbon dioxide is heavier than air and will accumulate in the low-lying area under some atmospheric conditions.

REDOUBT VOLCANO ASH, APRIL, 2009 Credit AVO, Photo C. Koplin

REDOUBT VOLCANO ASH, APRIL, 2009 Credit AVO, Photo C. Koplin

Volcanic ashes are a severe problem, resulting in ash deposits of a few inches (or centimeters) to several feet (or meters) deep. Volcanic ashes may also cause jet engine failure in aircraft or other type propulsion.

If the volcanic eruption is huge, volcanic ashes and sulfur aerosols may reach the stratosphere and be distributed around the world by the air currents. The Pinatubo volcano major eruption in 1991, from Luzon in the Philippines, sent ashes into the stratosphere which circled the Earth within two weeks.

The major world damaging problems from volcanoes are volcanic ashes and sulfur dioxide, resulting in air pollution and water pollution. Pollution, depending on the level achieved, will weaken peoples within the affected areas. This will make the human body more vulnerable to viruses and plagues, allowing death of the human body for millions, and perhaps billions, of people.

How many volcanoes exist now? At any given point in time, there will be approximately 20 volcanoes erupting. Approximately 60 volcanoes erupted, or continued to erupt, each year throughout the 1990′s. 154 volcanoes erupted in the full decade 1990-1999.

Do super volcanoes exist? Yes, and several are now in standby mode. The largest one is believed to be the Yellowstone Caldera, in Yellowstone National Park, US. This super volcano sits on a subterranean chamber of molten rock and gases; a magna chamber not far below the surface fuels all the volcanic attractions that Yellowstone is famous for. This volcano is alive and well today.

Be aware that God has the capability to extend any of several volcanoes to, or above, super volcano size, and to activate these volcanoes on such schedule as God desires.

There is much interest in the scientific community regarding volcanoes, as well as interest in the general population. Considering this, there has been compiled a Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World. This provides the WHERE of volcanoes, but this Catalog does not answer the WHEN.

There may be times when small, medium, or large populations will be ordered to evacuate from the vicinity of volcanoes. Therefore, there needs to be some advisory system to guide governments in making informed decisions.

There are several alerts in place: The US Geological Survey (USGS) issues periodic advisory notices for the US; the US Smithsonian Institute’s Global Volcanism Program combines with the USGS to issue periodic reports of world volcanoes; Ecuador, Indonesia, Japan, New Zealand, and Russia all have agencies which issue volcano alerts. None of these activities have error free records, nor is there much prediction on the amount of sulfur predicted to be released.

THE ONLY SAFE METHOD IS TO BE IN CONFORMANCE WITH GOD’S REQUIREMENTS.

In case of an volcanic alert error which leads to transition of individuals to the spirit world (i.e, death in the flesh), just be happy that you were prepared.

4.Earthquakes - Earthquakes seem mild, may not do much physical damage when small. Rain showers also seem mild, may not do much physical damage when small. Yet rain can turn into nasty typhoons or hurricanes and do millions and millions of dollars damage and kill thousands of people. Earthquakes, small or large, represent movement in the Earth’s crust; it appears that the Earth’s crust is constantly moving somewhere.

There are thousands of earthquakes in this earth every year! The US Geological Survey shows 45 earthquakes, equal to or above 2.5 magnitude, on the day May 20, 2013 (www.earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/map/) This is not an unusual day; some annual compilations show 30,000 earthquakes in a year.

The USGS (authors: T. Holzer and J. Savage) studied earthquakes with death tolls of more than 50,000, which they defined as catastrophic, from about 1500 AD to the present. (www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=3513) After statistically correlating the number of catastrophic earthquakes with world population, they were able to project that approximately 21 catastrophic earthquakes will occur in the 21st century. This will be triple the seven catastrophic earthquakes that occurred in the 20th century.

This same study also predicts that total deaths in the 21st century could more than double to approximately 3.5 million people.

The authors state: “—————– more people are living in seismically vulnerable buildings in the world’s earthquake zones.”

NOTE: This prediction of earthquake-related disasters does NOT include End Of Time hazards. Total deaths from all disasters at the End Of Time will be two thirds of everyone. Two out of every three people on this Earth will transition from the world of flesh to the world of spirits; only one out of three will survive to reach the Peace Millenium.

US Interstate 880 highway collapse - Oakland, CA October 1989 Photo: H.G.Wilshire, USGS

US Interstate 880 highway collapse – Oakland, CA October 1989 Photo: H.G.Wilshire, USGS

Has God warned of massive earthquakes that will occur in the End Of Time? Revelation 16:17-19 “And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air; and there came a great voice out of the temple of heaven from the throne, saying, It is done.
“And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings; AND THERE WAS A GREAT EARTHQUAKE, SUCH AS WAS NOT SINCE MEN WERE UPON THE EARTH, SO MIGHTY AN EARTHQUAKE AND SO GREAT.
“And the great city was divided unto three parts, AND THE CITIES OF THE NATIONS FELL: ————.”

Have there been large earthquakes before? The USGS Earthquakes Hazards Program have issued a report Largest Earthquakes in the World Since 1900. (Reference www.earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/10_largest_world.php) The first several listings are:
1. Chile ——————– 1960 05 22 ———— magnitude 9.5
2. Prince William Sound, Alaska —- 1964 03 28 —magnitude 9.2
3. Off the West Coast of Northern Sumatra — 2004 12 26– m. 9.1
4. Near the East Coast of Honshu, Japan —2011 03 11 — m.9.0
5. Kamchatka —————- 1952 11 04 ———–magnitude 9.0

Whether or not a specific building will stand up or fall down during an earthquake is a complex problem. However there are some general criteria and results that we can look at: The strength of the building will generally conform to the engineering design and construction of the building. However, whether the building falls, or even receives substantial damage, will depend on the magnitude of the earthquake and the foundation of the building. The type of earthquake will also be important, i.e., whether low frequency large displacement, or high frequency small displacement.

High-Rise Apartment Collapse, Concepcion, Chile, February 2010, Photo W.D.Mooney, USGS

High-Rise Apartment Collapse, Concepcion, Chile, February 2010, Photo W.D.Mooney, USGS

A high-rise apartment building in Concepcion, Chile collapsed as a result of the magnitude 8.8 earthquake on February 27, 2010. The building broke from the foundation, toppled over and split in half as it hit the ground. The taller building behind does not show any apparent damage. (Credit: Walter D. Mooney, PhD., USGS)

The local building code will have a major role to play in precluding earthquake building damage, and in limiting the number of deaths (if any). Many buildings now must meet or exceed earthquake magnitude 8.0, or its in-country equivalent in other earthquake codes. Engineers and architects will use a margin of error in the building design, which may allow the building to survive even when the earthquake is larger than the design-basis earthquake.

Izmit, Turkey earthquake, August 1999 Photo Credit: USGS

Izmit, Turkey earthquake, August 1999 Photo Credit: USGS

We do not have the local design criteria of these cities or countries around the world. In the above photo we note substantial difference in damages to the buildings. Buildings receiving more damage may have been constructed to older, less stringent criteria. Or, buildings with less damage may have been designed and constructed to higher standards (or codes).

Port Au Prince, Haiti Multi-Story Collapsed Building, January 3, 2010 Credit: USGS, Photo: Walter Mooney

Port-Au-Prince, Haiti Multi-Story Collapsed Building, January, 2010 Credit: USGS, Photo: Walter Mooney

This was a multi-story building occupied by “Centre D’Edudes La Concorde” in Port-au-Prince, Haiti which collapsed as a result of the magnitude 7 earthquake on January 12,2010. Interviews with eye-witnesses confirm that most structures collapsed within 10 or slightly more seconds, giving building occupants little time to escape. (Reference www.gallery.usgs.gov/photos/02_24_2010_c128Ja44Yyt_02_24_2010_1)

There are general conclusions which can be made:

A. Typically, buildings will not withstand significantly higher earthquake loads than designed and constructed without damage, or possible even collapse. We are projecting the BIG End Of Time earthquake peak intensity to exceed magnitude 12 (or its equivalent in local code). We are not aware of any building anywhere on Earth which is designed for earthquake magnitude of 12, or higher.

B. The peak earthquake intensity will not be the same for all cities. Cities on top of, or near, earthquake faults, will receive more shaking than cities more remote from the earthquake epicenter.

C. It may be that some buildings will be able to survive, even as buildings close by fall down. Pray to God that your building will survive and you will not perish.

D. Be sure that you have met all of God’s requirements which are applicable to your faith-based organization. If you are destroyed by an earthquake event, you will then be able to transition to Heaven.

E. We do not know WHEN or WHERE the BIG End Of Time earthquake(s) will happen. Be faithful to God so you will be counted among God’s Redeemed.

5. ASTEROIDS AND COMETS Space has a lot of objects moving about, most of which are in some type of orbital order. Most of these asteroids are orbiting our sun in an area called the asteroid belt.

This asteroid belt contains over 1 million asteroids, which range in size from small rocks to large asteroids. This asteroid belt is located between the planets Mars and Jupiter.

Are asteroids dangerous? About once a year, an automobile-size asteroid hits Earth’s atmosphere, creates an impressive fireball, and burns up before reaching the Earth’s surface. (Note: Asteroids are called meteoroids when they reach the Earth’s atmosphere.) Every 2,000 years or so, a meteoroid the size of a football field hits Earth and causes significant damage to the area.

Finally, once every few million years, an object large enough to threaten Earth’s civilization comes along.Impact craters on Earth, the moon, and other planetary bodies are evidence of these occurrences.

Meteor Crater formed about 50,000 years ago.  The meteor explosion exceeded the force of today's nuclear arsenal. Credit: Lunar and Planetary Institute.

Meteor Crater formed about 50,000 years ago. The meteor explosion exceeded the force of today’s nuclear arsenal. Credit: Lunar and Planetary Institute.

Does God warn about asteroids? From Revelation 8:10-11 “And the third angel sounded, and there fell a great star from heaven, burning as it were a lamp, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of water; and the name of the star is called wormwood; and the third part of the waters became wormwood; and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter.”

This particular meteoroid, from the Bible Prophecies above, must be extra large when it reaches the Earth’s atmosphere, and must explode at an altitude which will distribute debris over a huge area of the Earth. This debris will pollute the fresh water supply over a substantial part of the Earth. The meteoroid will have material in it which causes great harm to the human body, and many people will die from the polluted waters.

What can we conclude from this? There are many asteroids which are NOT in the asteroid belt, and have various orbits throughout this solar system. We believe God will deliver an asteroid, even as His prophecy has warned.

In evaluating this catastrophic event, we see that we do not know WHEN or WHERE this asteroid will arrive. Only prayers can deliver a population center, or centers, from this disaster!

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VOLCANIC ADVISORY NOTICES AND ADVISORY CODES

ALASKA ACTIVE VOLCANO MONITORING Credit AVO Photo C. Nye

ALASKA ACTIVE VOLCANO MONITORING Credit AVO Photo C. Nye

THE USGS HAS ISSUED CLEVELAND VOLCANO ACTIVITY NOTICE 20130504_0613 AND THIS WILL BE REPORTED HERE. THE CODES FOR THE USGS VOLCANIC ACTIVITY ALERT-NOTIFICATION SYSTEM ARE PUBLISHED HEREIN FOR THE BENEFIT OF THOSE VIEWING THIS POST.

AVO/USGS Volcanic Activity Notice
Volcano: Cleveland (CAVW #1101-24)

Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH
Previous Volcano Alert Level: ADVISORY

Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE
Previous Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

Issued: Saturday, May 4, 2013
Source: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Notice Number 2013/A8
Area: Aleutians Alaska, US
Volcanic Activity Summary: AVO infrasound detected a possible explosion at Cleveland Volcano this morning at 5:00 AM AKDT. The infrasound signals suggest that this was a relatively short duration, low-level explosion. No detection cloud has been detected in available satellite views.

Remarks: Cleveland volcano forms the western half of Chuginadak Island, a remote and uninhabited island in the east central Aleutians. It is located about 75 km (45 mi.) west of the community of Nikolski, and 1500 km (940 mi.) southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, US. The volcano’s most recent significant eruption began in February, 2001 and it produced 3 explosive events that produced ash clouds as high as 12 km (39,000 feet) above sea level. The most recent minor ash emissions were observed in November, 2012.

Contacts: John Power, Scientist-in-Charge, USGS
jpower@usgs.gov

Jeff Freymueller, Coordinating Scientist, UAFGHI
jeff.freymueller@gi.alaska.edu

The Alaska Volcano Observatory is a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys.

AUGUSTINE VOLCANO, ALASKA March, 2006 Credit: AVO-USGS photo: C Read

AUGUSTINE VOLCANO, ALASKA March, 2006 Credit: AVO-USGS photo: C Read

The above picture shows an eruption of the Augustine Volcano in March 2006. This was a VEI 3, which as relating to the size of volcanoes, is toward the lower end of the VEI scale.

This picture was selected to represent the current Cleveland Volcano; the Cleveland Volcano has erupted at VEI 3 before. We are projecting the Cleveland Volcano to be at VEI 3 when it next erupts.

USGS VOLCANIC ACTIVITY ALERT-NOTIFICATION SYSTEM

The following information is from the USGS Volcano Hazards Program, USGS Volcanic Activity Alert-Notification System. (Ref. www.volcanoes.usgs.gov/activity/alertsystem/ )

Ground Based Volcano Alert Levels Credit: USGS

Ground Based Volcano Alert Levels Credit: USGS


The standardized USGS alert-notification system for volcanic activity was designed to be useful to people on the ground and to those in aviation. To meet these goals, the alert-notification system has two parts – a four-tiered Volcano Alert Level and a four-tiered Aviation Color Code. Volcano observatory scientists determine alert levels for a volcano by using monitoring data and their knowledge of the expected or ongoing hazardous activity. Details about the volcanic activity accompany any notification of changes in alert levels.

Table 1. SUMMARY OF VOLCANO ALERT LEVELS

NORMAL Volcano is in typical background, noneruptive state
or, after a change from a higher level,
volcanic activity has ceased and volcano has returned to
noneruptive background state.

ADVISORY Volcano is exhibiting signs of elevated unrest above known
background level
or, after a change from a higher level,
volcanic activity has decreased significantly but continues
to be closely monitored for possible renewed increase.

WATCH Volcano is exhibiting heightened or escalating unrest with
increased potential of eruption, time frame uncertain,
or
eruption is underway but poses limited hazards.

WARNING Hazardous eruption is imminent, underway, or suspected.

AVIATION COLOR CODE

Volcanic activity threatens safe air travel when finely pulverized, glassy, abrasive volcanic material is explosively erupted into the atmosphere and dispersed as airborne clouds in flight paths of jet aircraft.

Table 2. SUMMARY OF AVIATION COLOR CODES

GREEN Volcano is in a typical background, non-eruptive state
or, after a change from a higher level,
volcanic activity has ceased and volcano has returned to non-eruptive background state.

YELLOW Volcano is exhibiting signs of elevated unrest above known background level
or, after a change from a higher level,
volcanic activity has decreased significantly but continues to be closely monitored for possible renewed increase.

ORANGE Volcano is exhibiting heightened or escalating unrest with increased potential of eruption, time frame uncertain,
or,
eruption is underway with no or minor volcanic-ash emissions (ash-plume height specified, if possible)

RED Eruption is imminent with significant emission of volcanic ash into the atmosphere likely
or,
eruption is underway or suspected with significant emission of volcanic ash into the atmosphere (ash-plume height specified, if possible).

AVIATION ALERTS COLOR CODES  CREDIT: USGS

AVIATION ALERTS COLOR CODES
CREDIT: USGS

For the world volcano alert system, please go to amplifiedendoftimewarnings.com and see VOLCANO ACTIVITY REPORTS AND REPORT CODES, OR CLICK Menu Item in the black bar in the center of the opening page.

Also, you can go to www.volcano.si.edu/reports/usgs/ for the world report.
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OCEAN-SHIPS TRANSPORTING FOOD, COMING DESTRUCTION

CONTAINER SHIPS CARRY BAGGED FOOD Credit: Bigstockphoto

CONTAINER SHIPS CARRY BAGGED FOOD Credit: Bigstockphoto

FOOD IS USUALLY GROWN IN THE MOST PRODUCTIVE AREAS OF THE WORLD, FOR THAT PARTICULAR FRUIT, VEGETABLE, SEA FOOD, OR MEAT. THE FOOD, WHICH BECOMES AVAILABLE FOR EXPORT, MUST THEN BE DISTRIBUTED TO OTHER CONSUMER MARKETS FOR CONSUMPTION. It is the ocean-shipped food distribution that will be discussed in this post.

In the previous post Droughts and Famine of this website, we looked at some of the leading food exports. For the dry cargoes, wheat, rice, and corn, these products total into the thousands of metric tons. For the meat cargoes, Beef and Veal, Pork, Broiler (chicken, 16 weeks old), the World shipped metric tons total about 236,500 in 2010. For sea food, the World harvested 142,000 metric tons in 2008.

How many ships are required to move all these cargoes, and what is the importance? The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is the United Nations specialized agency with responsibility for the safety and security of shipping ———–.

Quoting from IMO: “Of all the sectors that make up the global transport infrastructure, shipping probably has the lowest public profile and the least representative public image. Its importance is not well known although not a single area of our life remains unaffected by it.”

“As the world became more developed, proximity to raw materials and to markets became the factors that, above all others, shaped the world’s economy and, in particular, the major trade patterns and shipping routes. Eventually, the great seaborne trades became established: coal from Australia, Southern Africa, and North America to Europe and the Far East; grain from North and South America to Asia, Africa, and the Far East; iron ore from South America and Australia to Europe and the Far East; oil from the Middle East, West Africa, South America, and the Caribbean to Europe, North America, and Asia; and now we must add to this list containerized goods from the People’s Republic of China, Japan, and South-east Asia to the consumer markets of the western world. —” (As above, quotes are from IMO).

How many ships does it take to handle all these cargoes? As of December 2010, for merchant ships of 100 Gross Tons (GT) or larger, there were 104,304 with an average age of 22 years; they are registered in over 150 nations and manned by 1.5 million seafarers of virtually every nationality. (Reference Knowledge Centre, IMO.)

Looking at individual sectors in January 2011, oil tankers accounted for 475 million dwt (Deadweight) and dry bulk carriers were 532 million dwt. The containership fleet reached 184 million dwt. The fleet of general cargo ships stabilized at 109 million dwt. (Reference: UNCTAD Review of Maritime Transport 2011.)

The average age of the world fleet of sea-going merchant ships of no less than 100 GT (gross tons) is 22 years and the average age of the world cargo-carrying ships is 19 years. (Ref. Lloyd’s Register/Fairplay – World Fleet Statistics 2011.)

Why is our interest strong in all the details of ships and ship capacities? Revelation 8:8-9 “And the second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea: and the third part of the sea became blood; and the third part of the creatures which were in the sea, and had life, died; and THE THIRD PART OF THE SHIPS WERE DESTROYED.”

In this website post Volcanoes and Deadly Gases (published earlier), we stated this catastrophe is clearly describing a super volcano. No Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) existed when Revelation was written; none the less, we extended the current VEI and projected the VEI for this volcano as a probable 12. (Note that each VEI number increase represents an increase by a factor of 10. Thus a VEI 9 is 10 times stronger than a VEI 8, and a VEI 10 is 100 times stronger than a VEI 8. Except that this super volcano erupts as part of God’s End Of Time, we would not have projected a VEI larger than 10.)

For reference purposes, we will review the volcanic eruption data for Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, 1991. This is the second largest volcano eruption of the twentieth century.

PINATUBO ERUPTION ASH CLOUD 1991 Credit NOAA-R. Lapointe USAF

PINATUBO ERUPTION ASH CLOUD 1991 Credit NOAA-R. Lapointe USAF

THE CATACLYSMIC 1991 ERUPTION OF MOUNT PINATUBO, PHILIPPINES
US Geological Survey Fact Sheet 113-97

The second-largest volcanic eruption of the twentieth century, and by far the largest eruption to affect a densely populated area, occurred at Mount Pinatutubo in the Philippines on June 15, 1991. The eruption produced high-speed avalanches of hot ash and gas, giant mudflows, and a cloud of volcanic ash hundreds of miles across. The impacts of the eruption continue to this day.”

BACKGROUND
From USGS Fact Sheet 113-97: On July 16,1990, a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck about 60 miles (100 kilometers) northeast of Mount Pinatubo on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. At Pinatubo, this major earthquake caused some local earthquakes and a landslide. In March and April, 1991 molten rock (magma) rising to the surface from more than 20 miles (32 kilometers) beneath Pinatubo triggered more small earthquakes and caused powerful steam explosions that blasted three craters on the north flank of the volcano. Thousands of small earthquakes occurred beneath Pinatubo through April, May, and early June, and many thousands of tons of sulfur dioxide gas were released by the volcano.

THE ERUPTIONS
On June 12, (Philippine Independence Day), millions of cubic yards of gas-charged magma reached the surface and exploded in the reawakening volcano’s first spectacular eruption.

When even more highly charged magma reached Pinatubo’s surface on June 15, 1991, the volcano exploded in a cataclysmic eruption that ejected more than 1 cubic mile (5 cubic kilometers) of material. The ash cloud from this climactic eruption rose 22 miles (35 kilometers) into the air.

At lower altitudes, the ash was blown in all directions by the intense cyclone winds of a coincidentally occurring typhoon, and winds at the higher altitudes blew the ash southwestward. A blanket of volcanic ash (sand- and silt-size grains of volcanic minerals and glass) and larger pumice lapilli (frothy pebbles) blanketed the countryside. Fine ash fell as far away as the Indian Ocean, and satellites tracked the ash cloud several times around the globe. (Ref. USGS Fact Sheet 113-97)

Note that the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institute (SI) selected this as a VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index) 6. This rating is of major interest as we will shortly review the potential problems that would be incurred by a volcano at VEI 10! Remember that a VEI 8 is 100 times stronger than a VEI 6; and a VEI 10 is 100 times stronger than a VEI 8. Thus a VEI 10 is 10,000 times stronger than a VEI 6, assuming that the volcano conforms to the VEI system as developed by USGS and as extended by this webmaster.

IMPACTS OF THE ERUPTIONS
Fortunately, scientists from the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology and the USGS had forecast Pinatubo’s 1991 climactic eruption, thereby savings thousands of lives and probably 250 million dollars US in property damage. (Note that a warehouse roof collapsed from the ash load from the volcano and the rain load from the typhoon combined.) Commercial aircraft were warned about the hazard of the ash cloud. However, a number of jets flying to the west of the Philippines, encountered the ash cloud, and sustained about 100 million dollars US in damages. (Ref. USGS Fact Sheet 113-97.)

Nearly 20 million tons of sulfur dioxide were injected into the stratosphere in Pinatubo’s 1991 eruptions, and dispersal of this gas cloud around the world caused global temperatures to drop temporarily (1991 through 1993) by about 1 degree F (0.5 degree C).

The eruptions have dramatically changed the face of central Luzon, home to about 3 million people. (Among the damages in Luzon, a food supermarket roof collapsed.) About 20,000 indigenous Aeta highlanders, who had lived on the slopes of the volcano, were completely displaced, and most still wait in resettlement camps for some future time to return home. About 200,000 people who evacuated from the lowlands surrounding Pinatubo before and during the eruptions have returned home. (Ref. USGS Fact Sheet 113-97.)

THE FUTURE
Let’s look back for a moment. In Revelation 8:9, we are warned “THE THIRD PART OF THE SHIPS WERE DESTROYED.” As noted above earlier in this article, there are over 104,000 merchant ships of 100 GT (gross tons) or larger with an average age of 22 years. (Reference Knowledge Centre, International Maritime Organization.) Separately, we are advised there are about 25,000 fishing vessels.

This warning is of a catastrophic nature, meaning 1/3 of 104,000 large merchant ships, or about 34,700 large merchant ships will be destroyed. The fishing fleets can be destroyed by tsunami, but the fishing fleets will also not be immune to this world-changing super volcano.

God’s Word is never wrong. None the less, to search for hope, we need to look at the details of how these ships will be destroyed by the super volcano.

IS THIS THE WAY MANY SHIPS WILL LOOK?  Credit Bigstockphoto

IS THIS THE WAY MANY SHIPS WILL LOOK? Credit Bigstockphoto

How can a large merchant ship be destroyed? Ships need air to flow to the flame front in the main boilers and need cooling sea water to continuously circulate through the main condensers.

How much volcanic ash can be tolerated in the ships main boiler air flow? www.mckenziecorp.com/boiler_questions.htm states the following data: Natural Gas requires 9.6 cubic feet of air/cubic feet of fuel, Propane requires 24 cubic feet of air/cubic feet of fuel, Number 2 fuel oil requires 12.7 pounds of air/gallon of fuel.

Harmful variations in the air/fuel ratio will activate the automatic controls of a main boiler and shut the boiler down. In other words, the boilers will be choked for air, and as a result, they will shut down.

Before leaving the main boilers area, we should look at a firebox explosion. These typically occur after a burner flameout. Oil fumes, natural gas, propane, coal, or any other fuel can build up inside a boiler’s combustion chamber. When the flame is lost, the fuel flow may not shut down immediately. In this hot environment, the fuels will rapidly volatize due to the temperature. Once the lower explosive limit (LEL) is reached, any source of ignition will cause an explosion of the vapors. (Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/boiler_explosion).

A fuel explosion within the confines of the boiler firebox may damage the pressurized boiler tubes and interior shell, potentially triggering structural failure, steam or water leakage, and/or a secondary boiler shell failure and steam explosion. (Ref.: en.wikipedia, same as above.)

What about the ship’s main condenser? Hot steam from the main boilers travels through piping and reaches the ship’s main turbines; these turbines drive the ships propellers. The propellers are outside the ship’s hull and therefore can drive the ship through the sea water.

The hot steam from the turbines eventually reach the main condenser, where the steam is condensed to water. The main condenser has a series of tubes, with the hot steam being condensed on the inside of the tubes by cooling water flowing across the outside of the tubes. The cooling water flow is sea water. The condenser circulating pumps maintain a constant flow of cooling sea water, under NORMAL conditions.

What happens when the sea water can not flow through the condensers as designed? How much volcanic ash is required to plug the sea water side of the main condensers? The main condensers are designed to function at the specified sea water flow. As the cooling sea water flow begins to disappear, because of being plugged by volcanic ash pollution in the sea water side, the steam flow in the propulsion system must be rapidly reduced.

WITH THE SHIP’S MAIN BOILERS BEING REDUCED, OR SHUT DOWN BY VOLCANIC ASH AIR POLLUTION, AND WITH THE SHIP’S MAIN CONDENSERS BEING REDUCED, OR SHUT DOWN BY SEA WATER POLLUTION, THE SHIP ITSELF WILL VERY SHORTLY LOSE MOMENTUM. WITHOUT ANY ABILITY TO PROPEL ITSELF, THE SHIP WILL BECOME “DEAD IN THE WATER”. THE SHIP WILL HAVE NO CAPABILITY TO MOVE TO PORT, OR EVEN TO MAINTAIN DIRECTION IN THE WATER!

EVERY SHIP IN THE RANGE OF SIGNIFICANT VOLCANIC ASH, WHETHER BY AIR OR SEA WATER, OR BOTH, WILL SUFFER THE SAME FATE!

What about rescue attempts? There are not enough sea-going tugs to tow over 34,700 large merchant ships at one time. In addition, any ships which may be in shallow water will probably encounter large tsunamis, which may sink or damage the ship. (Tsunamis in deep ocean water do not have any significant affect on ocean shipping. The subject of tsunamis will be covered in a later post on this website.)

What about the ship’s crew? Many ships carry spare parts on board, although some repairs can only be made when a ship is in dry dock in a ship yard. Repairing a ship’s main boilers or a ship’s main condensers require specialized tools and specialized training. It is not realistic to expect major ship repairs to be made at sea!

Is it useful to try to project how much harmful material will be ejected by this super volcano? We will go way back into time to look at precedent: The Toba eruption occurred at what is now Lake Toba about 67,500 to 75,500 years ago. This eruption is estimated to be a VEI 8, even though humans can only look at geology now to estimate what VEI could have produced the geological evidence.

Reference http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Toba: Mt. Toba is located on the island of Sumatra in Indonesia. The ancient Mt. Toba eruption was large enough to have deposited an ash layer approximately 15 cm (5.9 in.) thick over all of South Asia. At one site in central India, the Toba ash layer today is up to 6 meters (20 feet) thick and parts of Malaysia were covered with 9 meters (30 ft) of ash fall. In addition, it has been variously calculated that 6,000 million (6 billion) tons of sulfur dioxide were ejected in to the atmosphere by the event.

Back to the future: If the new super volcano is correctly projected to be a VEI 10, this will be 1,000 times larger than Mt. Toba. Six billion tons of sulfur dioxide multiplied by 1,000 times will provide 6 trillion tons (6,000 billion tons) of sulfur dioxide to be ejected into the atmosphere. It may be, however, that the atmosphere will not accept all of this sulfur (due to being saturated), in which case some of the sulfur will deposit on the ground close by the volcano eruption point.

Back to the health of the ship’s crew. Considering that winds will not distribute the volcanic ash evenly, and that much of the sulfur ejected will go into the stratosphere, we think it is more useful to evaluate how much sulfur dioxide humans can withstand.

CDC at http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/volcanoes/facts.asp state: “The most common cause of death from a volcano is suffocation. —— Exposure to ash can be harmful . Infants, elderly people, and people with respiratory conditions such as asthma, emphysema, and other chronic lung diseases may have problems if they breathe in volcanic ash. ——Sulfur dioxide can cause these same breathing problems.”

The US Department of Health and Human Services recommends as follows: Sulfur concentration of 20 ppm (parts per million) requires respiratory protection. Sulfur concentration of 100 ppm or more requires a chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and cartridge(s) providing protection against sulfur dioxide.

Sulfur dioxide can harmfully affect the body if it is inhaled or comes
into contact with the eyes or skin.

Sulfur dioxide has the capability to cause substantial breathing difficulties. Severe exposure may cause a person to stop breathing! (Reference US Department of Health and Human Services, Occupational Health Guideline for Sulfur Dioxide.)

Clearly, the ship’s crew needs to be protected from volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide. Assuming that the ship has air conditioning, the make up air (which takes in fresh air from outside the air conditioned spaces) will need to be shut down. (This webmaster recommends an engineering study to identify all crew member actions required to avoid suffocation by volcanic ash and/or by volcanic sulfur).

There should be gas masks provided for each crew member, as a second level of protection against volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide.

It may also be that the volcano activities contribute to a stormy sea. Tsunamis will not affect ships in deep ocean water, but the tsunamis may be deadly when close to land. However, when in deep ocean, freak waves at 100 feet or higher may be encountered. These freak waves may damage the ship, or even sink the ship in worst case conditions.

What about the food on board these troubled ships? If the ship sinks, clearly the food is lost. If the ship is damaged to the extent of taking on sea water, the food may become unusable.

How will the loss of 1/3 of the world’s ships, whether sunk or just badly damaged, affect the cost of food? There is no apparent way to prevent ocean-shipping costs from dramatically increasing! We have not discussed the rising inflation that will result from the loss of ocean fishing, nor the rising costs of land-based foods due to pests and drought. We believe all persons should stockpile food against the scarcity and rising costs that are sure to happen.

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DROUGHTS AND FAMINE

DROUGHTS DESTROY FOOD Credit Bigstock Photo

DROUGHTS DESTROY FOOD Credit Bigstock Photo

INDIA RICE PADDY January 2010

Droughts and Famine seem to be major players along the path to the End Of Time. Droughts are a major contributor to famine, and can therefore be considered as a sub-set of famine.

However, droughts have a wider impact than just contributing to famine. Droughts can have a very harmful effect on water available to drink; if there is no water to drink, the human body will fail (which is to say, death will occur). This problem of availability of water to drink will be reviewed in later posts.

Droughts also affect the levels of water in waterways used for water-borne transportation. The Great Lakes in the U.S. are now (March 2013) about two feet below normal (or 0.61 meters). These lake waters are used to transport ore from the mines to the steel mills (and other mills). As a result, the inland ships are reducing the load of ore transported, so that the ships can ride higher in the water.

The Mississippi River (central U.S.) carries massive amounts of inland shipping. With reduced water in the River, sand dredging has become a continuing task in order to deepen the navigation channels. Sometimes tug boats and barges are delayed for several days while the river work is done.

Prophecy predicts the Euphrates River will dry up as part of the End Of Time. This is a mighty river and such a drought will harm peoples in several countries through which this river flows.

As interesting as the above drought impacts are, we will focus this post on famine, and the world food supply problems.

As we continue this work, we need some definitions. Drought is defined as lack or insufficiency of rain for an extended period that severely disturbs the hydrologic cycle in an area. Droughts involve water shortages, crop damage, streamflow reduction, and depletion of groundwater and soil moisture. Drought is the most serious hazard to agriculture in nearly every part of the world. (Reference www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/drought )

Famine is defined as an extreme and protracted shortage of food, resulting in widespread hunger and a substantial increase in the death rate. General famines affect all classes or groups in the region of food shortage; class famines affect some classes or groups much more severely than others; regional famines affect only a particular region or country. Causes may be natural or human. Natural causes include drought, flooding, unfavorable weather conditions, plant disease, and insect infestation. Human causes include war, overpopulation, faulty distribution systems, and high food prices. (Ref. www.merriam-webster.com/dictionaryt/famine )

The UN (United Nations) has a different approach to defining famine. Per the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), famine is declared when malnutrition rates among children exceed 30 percent, more than 2 people per every 10,000 die per day, and people are not able to access food and other basic necessities.

To look at the extent of famine, we will consider the following, quoted from the USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development): Almost 1 billion (a thousand million) people across the globe go to bed hungry every night. To meet the needs of a world population expected to reach 9 billion people by 2050, agricultural production will need to increase by 70 percent.

The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) agrees, and states: Famers will have to produce 70 percent more food by 2050 ————
The UN FAO adds: That amounts to 1 billion tons more wheat, rice, and other cereals, and 200 million more tons of beef and other livestock.

The UN FAO continues: But at this time, most available land is being farmed; however,some land is being used in ways that often decrease its productivity. These harmful practices lead to soil erosion and wasting of water. This means that a major “sustainable intensification” of agricultural productivity on existing farmland will be necessary.

Is it possible to achieve this 70 percent increase in food production, without a major increase in farm land (including perhaps no significant increase in farm land)? Let us take a look at the past years, and see how the world of food production has changed.

Again quoting from UN FAO: Thanks to the green revolution, the world’s cropland grew by just 12 percent between 1961 and 2009, but food productivity increased by 150 percent.

How was this achieved? There are multiple organizations at work around the world. Within the UN, there are three agencies: the WFP (World Food Program), the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization, and the IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development). Their missions complement one another and they often combine their expertise in agriculture, food assistance, and rural development. (Reference: www.wfp.org/about/partners/rome-based-un-agencies)

Within the United States, the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) is the central focus agency for food supply. The USDA has worked in many areas, and US agencies that began activities as part of the USDA include the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Geological Survey (USGS), and the USDA Forest Service. Other agencies – the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the US Department of Commerce, and the Office of Naval Research – also conducted research projects on USDA land in Maryland, US. Collaborative research between USDA and other agencies continue today. (Reference: www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/apr10/research0410.htm?pf=1)

States within the US, universities, and colleges also conduct studies and agricultural research. These widespread activities help insure the integrity of the agricultural research work performed.

In addition to government agencies, private corporations which produce seed also perform agricultural research work. There are large amounts of value that come from the research work of the private companies. For instance, on March 26, 2013, Monsanto (MON) and DuPont (DD) announced a licensing agreement on Soybean Technologies which will have payments of multiple millions of dollars through 2017.

We realize there are agencies dedicated to food productivity in all countries. However, working through the channels of the United Nations; then to an individual country, the United States; and then to the many ways that food productivity work is distributed within a given country (again, the US); illustrates the complexity of food production.

Healthy cows lower milk cost

HEALTHY COWS LOWER MILK COST

Photo credit: USDA

We see that there are a large number of organizations dedicated to food production around the world. However, we realize it would be impossible to list all countries and all agencies.

What are some recent food results of the top producing countries?

(Data is in thousands of metric tons)
Leading exporters —– 2000 —- 2005 —- 2010
WHEAT
United States —– 28,904 —– 27,291 —– 34,700
EU-27 ————- 15,675 —– 15,701 —– 22,000
Canada ———— 17,316 —– 16,020 —– 17,000
Australia ——— 15,930 —– 16,012 —– 14,500

RICE
Thailand ———– 7,521 —— 7,376 —— 10,000
Vietnam ———— 3,528 —— 4,705 ——- 6,000
United States —— 2,583 —— 3,623 ——- 3,565
Pakistan ———– 2,429 —— 3,654 ——- 2,650

CORN
United States —– 49,313 —— 54,201 —— 49,532
Argentina ———- 9,676 ——- 9,464 —— 14,500
Brazil ————- 6,261 ——- 4,524 ——- 8,500
Ukraine ————– 397 ——- 2,464 ——- 5,500

Source: US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, unpublished data from PS and D (Production, Supply, and Distribution) database

Published by US Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012

GOAT Photo credit USDA S. Bauer

GOAT Photo credit USDA S. Bauer

Meat Production by Type and Country: 2010
BEEF and VEAL
World ————-57,329
United States —–12,048
Brazil ————-9,115
EU-27 ————–8,085
China ————–5,600

PORK
World ————103,223
China ————-51,070
EU-27 ————-23,000
United States —–10,187
Brazil ————-3,195

BROILER (chicken, 16 week old)
World ————-75,991
United States —–16,563
China ————-12,550
Brazil ————12,312
EU-27 ————–9,095

Data is in thousands of metric tons.

Source: US Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agriculture Service (FAS), Livestock and Poultry: World Markets and Trade, annual.

European Union-27 (EU-27) countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom.

It would appear that the world food supply will be adequate, under “normal” conditions. We will now look into the causes of food availability problems.

Food availability problem causes may be through nature or be caused by peoples. Nature’s causes include drought, flooding (too much rain), unfavorable weather conditions (such as a cyclone, or a winter snow storm), plant disease, insect infestations, and volcanoes. Human causes include military war between nations, civil war within a nation, overpopulation, wasted food, and high food prices.

The US Agricultural Research Service is very concerned about how much food goes to waste between farm and “fork”, both nationally and internationally. (Ref. Agricultural Research, March, 2013, Wasted Food: What We Are Doing To Prevent Costly Losses.) (“Fork” refers to the actual eating of the food.)

The US Department of Agriculture’s Economic Research Service (ERS) estimated – in 2008 – that the amount of food lost annually at just the retail and consumer levels alone averaged 275 pounds per person, representing a total yearly national impact of $165 billion, US $. Cutting food losses by just 15 percent would provide enough extra food to feed more than 25 million people every year. Note that cutting these food losses would not require any new crop, pasture, or rangelands.

Another ERS assessment found that most of the food loss in developed countries happens post harvest, after the food has left the farm gate. In less developed countries, the bulk of the loss occurs before harvest. (Ref. Agricultural Research, March, 2013, as above.)

The ERS work covers a wide variety of foods, from grains to grapes, meats to potatoes, and more.

For example, ARS have developed an ozone-based treatment that growers of organic grapes can use – after harvest – to inhibit Botrytis cinerea, the microbe that causes gray mold. The research provides an alternative to sulfur dioxide, which organic growers are prohibited from using.

Some of the agricultural investigations target the needs of people in less-developed countries. For example, ERS developed the technology for a superior instant corn-soy blend. Twenty metric tons of this ready-to-eat emergency-aid food were shipped to Haiti in 2011 to feed more than 3,000 malnourished children. The product’s 1-year shelf life makes it ideally suited for tropical countries that lack adequate storage facilities. (Ref. Agricultural Research, March, 2013, as above.)

The on-going agriculture research is massive and in-depth. The University of Nevada (US), for example, conducted research to examine plant stress caused by drought and heat shock. Their long term objective is to develop different plants and crops with increased tolerance to a combination of drought stress and heat shock. (Ref. www.reeis.usda.gov/web/crisprojectpages/)

Is every possible food plant problem associated with the End Of Time being investigated? NO. How will the sulfur dioxide and ashes released by massive volcanoes affect plant food production? The astonishing impact of volcanic ash and sulfur aerosols could be to block, or probably reduce, sunlight from reaching plants. Plants can not grow and thrive in shade, depending on density of the shade.

We will at this time look into the category of fish.

FISH FEED MANY PEOPLES

FISH FEED MANY PEOPLES

Market-size Catfish. Credit: USDA Photo credit: P. Greb

Fisheries – Commercial Catch by Top Producing Countries
(In thousands of metric tons)
______________________________________________________________
Country ————- 1990 ————– 2008
World ————– 97,852 ———— 142,287
China ————– 31,136 ————- 47,527
India —————-3,800 ————– 7,584
Peru —————- 6,874 ————– 7,406
Indonesia ———– 3,022 ————– 4,850

Source: US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Fisheries of the US, annual. Data from Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

The oceans of the world have been a reliable source of food for mankind, since the beginning of mankind on this Earth. Has God warned of trouble to come?

Revelation 8:8-9 “And the second angel sounded, and as it were, a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea: and the third part of the sea became blood;

And the third part of the creatures which were in the sea, and had life, died; and the third part of the ships were destroyed.”

Clearly, “——- a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea; and the third part of the sea became blood;” is a huge volcano. (For estimate of size, see this website Post: Volcanoes and Deadly Gases in this website.) Volcano eruptions release tons of sulfur dioxide and other gases into the air and the sea; as well as tons of ash. The sulfur dioxide and ash will pollute one third of the world’s ocean, and turn the ocean color to red.

The resulting ocean pollution will cause many (prophecy says one third) of the fish and other sea food to die. What happens if much of the previously available sea food disappears (which is to say, dies)? If mankind is to avoid death through famine, the land food crops will have to produce more food!

Will the land agriculture crops be able to produce more food? How about timing? The land plants will not instantly be able to produce more; this could happen in the middle of winter, for instance. This catastrophic event could happen in the end of the plant growing season, or any time when the plant food increase would be months away.

Is this as bad as it gets? Not yet! Revelation 16:3 “And the second angel poured out his vial upon the sea; and it became as the blood of a dead man: and every living soul died in the sea.”

How could this be? There already is a phenomenon called a “red tide”, which is a common term for a HAB. These harmful algal blooms, or HABs, occur when colonies of algae – simple ocean plants that live in the sea – grow out of control while producing toxic or harmful effects on people, fish, shellfish, marine mammals, and birds.

One of the best known HABs in the US occurs along Florida’s Gulf Coast, in the heat and hot sun of late summer. This bloom is caused by microscopic algae that produce toxins that kill fish and make shellfish dangerous to eat. The human illnesses caused by HABs can be debilitating or even fatal. (If this is the present, how much worse will a “red tide” be that pollutes the oceans of the world!)

The above information on “red tide”is supplied by the US www.oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/redtide.html

Are the rivers, and headwaters of the rivers, free of pollution? What has God warned? Revelation 16:4 “And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters; and they became blood.” Apparently the “Red Tide” phenomena will go into the rivers and headwaters of the rivers and cause a similar fish and sea food kill such as has happened in the oceans.

Once the oceans of the world, and the rivers of the world, are closed to fishing, can we count on increased food supply from the land agriculture plants?

LOCUSTS SWARM

LOCUSTS SWARM Credit Bigstock photo

Unfortunately, at the same time that sea food is virtually disappearing, the land plant foods are also under attack.

Consider the case of locusts. “Massive outbreaks of locusts and Mormon crickets are currently (April 2013) afflicting people in North America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. A common characteristic of these insects is that they form huge groups called migratory bands that can contain millions of insects all traveling together in the same direction.” (Reference www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/.)

Many different plants and fruit/nut bearing trees are under attack around the world. For example, the widespread and rapid establishment of the olive fruit fly in California, US, required immediate changes in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for olives. After finding that resident natural enemies did not provide adequate control, researchers began a worldwide research for parasistoids, with exploration in the Republic of South Africa, Namibia, India, China, and other countries. ————— Two parasitoid species are now being released throughout the state’s olive-growing regions, and researches are studying their effectiveness. (Ref. USDA National Agricultural Library, Report Biological controls investigated to aid management of olive fruit fly in California, by Kent Daane and others.)

It would appear that the world can not count on increased harvest from land based plants and trees; the estimate is for a reduction by 25 percent! Food from land plants and trees will NOT REPLACE the food lost from the oceans.

WHERE DOES THIS LEAVE THE PEOPLES OF THE WORLD AS REGARDS FOOD SUPPLY? It may be that many people will have been killed by military war between nations, or civil strife within nations. It may be that many people will have died already from famine in the countries harmed by the military wars. It may be that many people will already have died from the various plagues and viruses. It may be that famine will strike down many people of the world at this time!

For preparations that an individual can take, see the section INDIVIDUAL PREPAREDNESS of this website.

We are advised in Acts 2:17&21 “And IT SHALL COME TO PASS IN THE LAST DAYS, SAITH GOD, I WILL POUR OUT OF MY SPIRIT UPON ALL FLESH: AND YOUR SONS AND YOUR DAUGHTERS SHALL PROPHESY, AND YOUR YOUNG MEN SHALL SEE VISIONS, AND YOUR OLD MEN SHALL DREAM DREAMS. AND IT SHALL COME TO PASS, THAT WHOSOEVER SHALL CALL ON THE NAME OF THE LORD SHALL BE SAVED.”
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VOLCANOES AND DEADLY GASES

Mount St. Helens Ash Cloud, 1980, Credit USGS

Mount St. Helens Ash Cloud, 1980, Credit USGS

Etna Volcano Eruption - Feb. 2013 credit:NASA

Etna Volcano Eruption – Feb. 2013 credit:NASA

VOLCANOES HAVE BEEN PART OF EARTH SINCE THE EARLY AGES OF THE EARTH.  In these early ages, volcanoes ruled the Earth.  There was no atmosphere, and then as atmosphere formed, it would not have supported life as we are today. 

Volcano eruptions release tremendous amounts of deadly gases and atmospheric debris, as well as hot lava.  The hot lava is localized, and does not ordinarily represent a world wide threat.  The deadly gases, if released by multiple volcanoes across the world, will cause death to many peoples of the world.

Representative samples of volcano gases are compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).  (The USGS can be reached through www.volcanoes.usgs.gov ).  Samples of the most common volcano gases are as follows:(compositions are given in volume percent concentrations)

Water Vapor (H2O)  37.1 Kilauea Summit,  77.2 Erta Ale, 97.1 Momotombo (names are volcano names)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  48.9  Kilauea Summit,  11.3 Erta Ale,  91.1 Momotombo

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)   11.9  Kilauea Summit,  8.34  Erta Ale,  1.44 Momotombo

Lesser gases are Hydrogen (H2), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), Hydrogen Chloride (HCl), and Hydrogen Flouride (HF).

Mercury is also released by most volcanoes:  Kilauea (Hawaii, U.S.) releases about 270 tons of mercury each year, and has been identified as the source for Mercury on Oahu, Hawaii, 320 km away.  (Reference:  Oregon State U.S. at oregonstate.edu/education/gases )  Probable most of this Mercury falls into the Pacific Ocean!

The strongest harm of large explosive volcanic eruptions comes from the Sulfur Dioxide (SO2).  The SO2 converts to Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) and rapidly condenses in the stratosphere to form fine sulfate aerosols. (Ref. USGS Volcano Hazards Program report, Volcanic Sulfur Aerosols Affect Climate and the Earth’s Ozone Layer.)

Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfuric Acid affect people directly; and affect grasses, agricultural crops, and trees directly; and influence the creatures of the sea indirectly (by polluting sea water with the sulfuric acid, to a level that fish can not survive).

How much sulfur does a volcano release into the atmosphere?  Oregon State at volcano.oregonstate.edu/book/export/html/151  has released Data from Rampino and Self, 1984 as follows:

Laki, 1783     VEI 4   H2SO4 aerosols (kg):  approx. 1×10 11th power

Tambori, 1815  VEI 7  H2SO4 aerosols (kg): 2×10 to 11th power

Krakatau, 1883 VEI 6 H2SO4 aerosols(kg): 5×10 to 10th power

Santa Maria,1902 VEI 6 H2SO4 (kg):  2×10 to 10th power

Katmai, 1912  VEI 6  H2SO4 (kg):  2×10 to 10th power

St. Helens, 1980 VEI 5  H2SO4 (kg): 3×10 to 8th power

VEI = Volcano Explosivity Index, was developed by USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) and is reprinted in our website (and post) amplifiedendoftimewarnings.com, Multiple Volcanoes and World-Disaster Volcanoes. Note that increasing VEI numbers represent increasing volcano eruption strength.

H2SO4 is sulfuric acid, shown above in kg.   The number, for example 2×10 to 10th power, will look like this: 20,000,000,000, if written in non-math numbers.

Oregon State adds additional information (Ref. same as above, but not included in Data from Rampino and Self, 1984): Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines, 1991.

“The volume of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption was about 5 cubic km of daciteIt was the second largest eruption in the twentieth century. (Reference http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/1997/fs113-97/)  It produced the greatest volume of SO2 ever measured, 20 Mt, about three times more than El Chichon (McCormick, 1992).  This gas reached the stratosphere and circled the globe in three weeks (Bluth and others, 1992).”

How many volcanoes will be required to weaken or kill people, from volcanic  activity (without considering other problems occurring at the same End Of Time point)?

How many volcanoes are active now?  The U.S. Smithsonian Institution has a Global Volcanism Program, and we quote information and data below (Ref. www.volcano.si.edu):

At least 20 volcanoes will probably be erupting today (February 16, 2013).  Italy’s Stromboli has been erupting for more than a thousand years.  Approximately 60 volcanoes erupted (or continued to erupt) each year throughout the 1990′s.  154 volcanoes erupted in the full decade 1990-1999.  About 550 have had historically documented eruptions in the past years.  Some estimates of young seafloor volcanoes exceed a million during the past 10,000 years.”

How much air pollution by Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) can humans tolerate? Note that the existing atmosphere already has sulfur (in various forms) in it.

The Environmental Protection Agency (U. S. EPA) has established air regulations at 0.14 ppm (parts per million) for a given 24 hour period and 0.03 ppm for annual standards.  These standards should allow people already suffering from asthma (respiratory problem) to continue to survive.

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommendation is to have a respiratory mask available for the following conditions:

Sulfur concentration of 20 ppm (parts per million)  require minimum respiratory protection.  Sulfur concentration of 100 ppm requires a chemical cartridge respirator with a full facepiece and cartridge(s) providing protection against sulfur dioxide.

Sulfur dioxide can affect the body if it is inhaled or comes into contact with the eyes or skin.

Sulfur dioxide has the capability to cause severe breathing difficulties.  Severe exposures may cause a person to stop breathing! (Ref. Department of Health and Human Services, Occupational Health Guideline for Sulfur Dioxide.)

An expanded review of the sulfur problem is continuing and has been published in website www.amplifiedendoftimewarnings.com, Volcanic Eruptions and Deadly Gases and in Multiple Volcanoes and World Disaster Volcanoes.

A case is useful for illustration purposes.  The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), through their Volcano Hazards Program, has provided the following:  “The 1783 volcanic eruption Of Laki crater-row in Iceland was largely nonexplosive and produced very little ash.  The eruption lasted 8-9 months and extruded about 12.3 cubic km of basaltic lava over an area of 565 square km.  A bluish haze of sulfur aerosols all over Iceland destroyed most summer crops in the country; the crop failures led to the loss of 75% of all livestock; and 24% of the human population died.”

It would be nice if we knew the ppm (parts per million) of sulfur in the air, whether the livestock deaths were directly from the sulfur in the air or from eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water (or all of these), and how did the people die.  These details will be documented if the Earth has a rerun of this problem anywhere.

Has God warned of these problemsRev.8:6-9  “And the seven angels which had the seven trumpets prepared themselves to sound.

“The first angel sounded, and there followed hail and fire mingled with blood, and they were cast upon the earth: and the third part of trees was burnt up, and all the green grass was burnt up.

And the second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea: and the third part of the sea became blood;

“And the third part of the creatures which were in the sea, and had life, died; and the third part of the ships were destroyed.”

Looking at the first angel blowing his trumpet, “there followed hail and fire mingled with blood, and they were cast upn the earth: and the third part of trees was burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up.”  The words “hail and fire mingled with blood”  represent volcanic debris that occurs during a volcanic eruption.  The “blood” is representative of the color of the debris, and is not blood from any animal.

“—— the third part of trees was burnt up, and all green grass was burnt up.” represents the sulfuric acid pollution attack upon the trees and grass.  Although drought and sun flares could possible accomplish such a disaster, the scriptures here are giving results of volcanic activity.  We have provided above the impact of sulfuric acid on trees and grass.  Studies of pollution affects on trees and grass is continuing, with a substantial amount of the pollution damage work completed.

We believe such a high level of sulfur pollution in the air would also destroy farm crops.  Review into farm crops is ongoing.

“The second angel sounded, and as it were, a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea:  ———–”  This is clearly a super volcano, which is erupting.  We don’t have a VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index) number, since the VEI had not been developed at the time the scriptures were written.

Therefore we would suggest this volcano’s probable VEI would be larger than a VEI 10, and most likely as large as a VEI 12.  Even though the present VEI does not extend above VEI 8, each volcano number increase represents an increase by a factor of 10.  Thus a VEI 9 would be 10 times larger than a VEI 8, and a VEI 10 would be 100 times larger than a VEI 8.

As stated earlier above, VEI = Volcano Explosivity Index, which was developed by the USGS (U.S Geological Survey) and is reprinted in amplifiedendoftimewarnings.com, Multiple Volcanoes and World-Disaster Volcanoes.

“And the third part of the creatures which were in the sea, and had life, died; ———-”  The sulfur erupted by the volcano has to go somewhere; some sulfur pollutes the air and some sulfur pollutes the sea.  The polluting of waters is widely known to cause fish kills, and fish kills are occurring here!  This makes life terrible for fishermen and for those humans who rely on fish for food.  In addition, the sea life that is not directly killed may be too polluted to allow human consumption.

“———— and the third part of the ships were destroyed.”  See this website post Food Ocean-Shipping Coming Destruction for details of ships at sea and their destruction.

Other references:  Joel 2:30,31 “And I will shew (show) wonders in the heavens and in the earth, blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke.  The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and terrible day of the Lord come.”

Matthew 24:29  “Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken.”

Friends, how can a person survive with these difficulties?  Acts 2:16-17, 21    “But this is that which was spoken by the prophet Joel; “And it shall come to pass in the last days, saith God, I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh: ———–  And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved.”

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Materials from amplifiedendoftimewarnings.com are used with permission of the site webmaster.

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ASTEROIDS AND COMETS

Meteor_Crater-browse_credit_NASA

“Meteor Crater is one of the youngest and best-preserved impact craters on Earth. The crater formed roughly 50,000 years ago when a 30-meter wide, iron-rich meteor weighing 100,000 tons struck the Arizona, U.S. desert at estimated 20 kilometers per second. The resulting explosion exceeded the force of today’s nuclear arsenals and created a 1.1-kilometer wide, 200 meter deep crater.

“The heavily cratered history of the Moon indicates that Earth also experienced many impact events early in its history. The procession of erosion and plate tectonics have combined to erase nearly all Earth’s craters. To date, only about 150 impact craters have been identified on Earth, and most of these are severely eroded or buried by later rock units. ————- This aerial view shows the dramatic expression of the crater in the arid landscape.”
Credit: Lunar and Planetary Institute.
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SOME ASTEROIDS FROM SPACE WILL HIT EARTH  Photo: NASA/UM M.Ahearn 2005

SOME ASTEROIDS FROM SPACE WILL HIT EARTH Photo: NASA/UM M.Ahearn 2005

Space has a lot of objects floating about, most of which are in some type of orbital order. NASA (U.S.) has been assigned the work of identifying and assigning the risk of these space objects. To accomplish this, NASA is using data from NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE.

For those space objects that are near Earth, the program used is called NEOWISE. NEOWISE has observed more than 19,000 objects larger than 100 meters (330 feet) wide, which are within the range of medium to large-size asteroids.

For the largest asteroids, larger than 1,000 meters (3,300 feet), NEOWISE estimates the total population at about 980. Reference www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/WISE/.

Most asteroids are orbiting our sun in an area called the asteroid belt.
This asteroid belt apparently contains over 1 million asteroids, which range in size from small rocks to large asteroids. The asteroid belt is located between the planets Mars and Jupiter.

Why study asteroids? About once a year, an automobile-sized asteroid hits Earth’s atmosphere, creates an impressive fireball, and burns up before reaching the Earth’s surface. Every 2,000 years or so, a meteroid the size of a football field hits Earth and causes significant damage to the area.

Finally, once every few million years, an object large enough to threaten Earth’s civilization comes along. Impact craters on Earth, the moon, and other planetary bodies are evidence of these occurrences.

Does God warn about asteroids? From Revelation 8:10-11 “And the third angel sounded, and there fell a great star from heaven, burning as it were a lamp, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of water; and the name of the star is called Wormwood; and the third part of the waters became wormwood; and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter.”

This is describing an asteroid, which for clearer identification is called a meteroid when it enters the Earth’s atmosphere. Most meteroids are small and burn up in the Earth’s atmosphere, and cause no damage to anyone on Earth. However, larger meteroids go farther into Earth’s atmosophere and explode at closer proximity to the Earth.

This particular meteoroid, from the Bible Prophecies above,  must be extra large when it reaches the Earth’s atmosphere, and must explode at an altitude which will distribute debris over a huge area of the Earth. This debris will pollute the fresh water supply over a substantial part of Earth. The meteroid will have a material in it which causes great harm to the human body, and many people will die from the polluted waters. 

What is the differences between comets and asteroids? Most asteroids come from the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter; the asteroid belt apparently has enough material to make a planet. In our solar system, there is adequate space to fit another planet between Mars and Jupiter. Many theories state Jupiter gathered building material from the asteroid belt and prevented a planet from forming.

Many asteroids originated outside of our solar system and may have come from dying planets. However these asteroids came to be, they are now large chunks of rocks, which have themselves been in collision with other asteroids and comets.

Comets are typically originated from the Kuiper Belt, a region beyond the orbit of Neptune. Comets from this neighborhod typically take 200 years or less to make one orbit around the Sun. These are called short-period comets. (Ref. NASA.gov )

Comets may come from another region, the Oort Cloud, a far-far distant cloud of possibly a trillion comets that surround the solar system. One trip around the Sun could take one of these comets 30 milliion years. These are called long-period comets. (Ref. NASA.gov )

Why do comets look fuzzy and have tails? “When they are at home in the Oort Cloud or Kuiper Belt, comets are just dull, dark chunks of ice, dust, and rock. In this state, they may not be much different from asteroids. But as comets get closer to the Sun and begin to warm up, some of their materials start to boil off. This material forms a dust cloud around the nucleus. The cloud is called the coma and may be hundreds of thousands of miles across.

“Comet tails appear as the comet approaches the Sun and can grow to be millions of miles long. The particles in the solar wind push the small dust particles in the coma into a long curved path. This tail is known as the dust tail. Another tail, the ion tail, is made of electrically charged molecules of gas. The ion tail points directly away from the Sun.” Reference NASA’s Planetary Science website: http://nssdc.gstc.nasa.gov/planetary and NASA’s Solar System Exploration website: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets.

For comparison purposes, Neptune is 2,798,000,000 miles, or (4,503,000,000 km) from the Sun.  (Ref. NASA.gov)

Do not push away the possibility of a large meteor exploding above your section of the world. For an asteroid this large, NASA will probably have located it and be tracking its most likely point of impact on Earth. Will your government direct its people regarding evasive action, such as evacuating a large section of geography?

Does God have a route or channel to escape? Let it be very clear, millions and milions of people will transition from the flesh to the spirit during the various End Of Time catastrophes.

From Acts 2:16-18 “This is that which was spoken by the Prophet Joel: And it shall come to pass in the last days, saith God, I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy (predict the future); and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams.”

Acts 2:21 “And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved.”————————————————————————–
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